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Cluster B:
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder


Antisocial Personality Disorder
Description:
Pattern of disregard and violation of rights of others that has been occuring since the age of 15. A person with this disorder refuses to conform to social norms and respect to the law, which can lead to arrest. Person may act impulsively, seem self-focused, deceitful, and lack remorse for actions. The person must be at least 18 years of age to be diagnosed with this disorder.

Treatment Options:
Psychotherapy- goal is to help person understand the nature and consequences of the disorder in order to help control behavior

Cognitive Therapy- goalis to help person understand how he creates his own problems and how his perceptions of reality prevent him from seeing himself how others view him.

Medications- no medications are used to treat Antisocial Personality Disorder, but medications may be prescribed to treat agression.

Patients with this disorder are recommended to seek a professional who has experinece in treating this disorder. Also, family therapy may be recommended as well.
Black, D. (2006). Treatment for Antisocial Personality Disorder. http://psychcentral.com.

Borderline Personality Disorder
Description:

Pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects. Person also has impulsive behaviors in early adulthood. Person attempts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, has unstable and intense personal relationships and unstable self-image. Person with this disorder may also impulsively spend money, abuse substances, binge eating, reckless driving, and sex. There also may be suicidal behaviors or threats, feelings of emptiness and inapropriate anger.

Treatment Options:
Psychotherapy- works best for this particular type of disorder. The goal of psychotherapy is to help the client create new coping skills. Often one of the first things that is done is to have the client sign a contract stating that they will not commit suicide. Treatment is usually long term, lasting at least a year.

Marsha Linehan's Dialectical Behavioral Therapy- research has proven that this form of psychotherapy has been the most effective with patients suffering form Borderline Personality Disorder. The goal of this therapy is to help the client learn how to take better control of their lives, emotions and self through knowlege, emotion regulation and congnitive restructuring. This approach to therapy is often conducted in a group setting.

Medications- Low doses of antipsychotic drugs may be used for psychoses. Neuroleptics, such as haloperidol may be used to help with disorganized thinking. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed for suicidal feelings.

Grohol, J. (2007). Borderline Personality Disorder Treatment. http://psychcentral.com.

UTube Video about Borderline Personality Disorder http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qt9SOvILMI8






Histrionic Personality Disorder

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Description: Disorder consists of a pattern of excessitve emotionality and attention seeking that beings in early adulthood. Person may feel uncomfortable if he is not the center of attention, may interact with others with inappropriate sexual or seductive behaviors. Also, person may have shallow emotions, believe that relationships are deeper than they really are. Person also may act very dramatic and showy.

Treatment Options:
Psychotherapy- is the treatment option of choice for this particular disorder. Group, family and cognitive-oriented approaches are not recommended. It is important for the therapist to clearly define boundries and the theraputic framework because often times the client will find the therapist sexually attractive. Also, a suicide contract should also be established as well.

Solution-focused Therapy- is another treatment option that is effective. With this the therapist focuses on short term goals that can be reached. Therapist should not focus on the long term personality change of the individiual.

Medications- No specific medications are noted. If medications are prescribed, caution should be taken for these could be used in a self-destructive mannner.

Grohol. J. (2006). Histrionic Personality Disorder Treament. http://psychcentral.com.


Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Description: A pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration and lack of empathy present in early adulthood and present in many contexts. Person will have a strong sense of self importance, preoccupied with fantasies of success or power and believes that he is "special." Person also has a feeling that they are entitled, and requires excessive admiration and lacks empathy. Person often acts arrogant or haughty.

Treatment Options:

Hospitalization- is used only if the disorder is severe and hospitalization is usually brief. The inpatient program may offer individual psychotherapy, family involvement, and a specialized residential enviornment. Goal of therapy is to create a better integrated internal world, more cohesive self-object representation and self-concept that is less vulnerable to injury.

Psychosocial Treatment- Professionals work with patient to create a feeling of respect and acknowledge patient's sense of self-importance. Professionals work to avoid reinforcing pathological grandosity or weakness. Support is provided first and then a step-by-step approach is used to confront patient's vulnerabilities.

Individual Psychotherapy- Psychiatrists help patient to use his narcissistic characteistics to reconstitute an intact self-image. Positive transference and therapeutic alliance is not relied upon in treatment, since patient may not acknowledge the therapist as a normal human being, but a superhuman or devalued human.

Group Therapy- Goal is to help the patients develop a healthy individuality so that they can acknowledge others as separate persons and decrease the need of self-defeating coping mechanisms. In groups the leader works towards developing empathy.

Grohol. J. (2006). Narcissistic Personality Disorder Treatment. http://psychcentral.com.

UTube Video about Narcissistic Personality Disorder http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03prwMF59BI